A woman’s oestrogen (or estrogen) and progesterone levels rise and fall with her menstrual cycle (peaking before and after ovulation, respectively) and levels of both hormones increase markedly during pregnancy.
At menopause, a woman’s oestrogen and progesterone levels fall, leading to symptoms such as:
Women who experience an early menopause (younger than about 45 years of age) may have increased risks of mortality and certain diseases compared with those who experience it at an older age.
Menopausal and post-menopausal women may be prescribed oestrogens (with or without a progestogen) to boost their hormone levels and relieve symptoms. Such hormone replacement therapy (or HRT) also prevents osteoporosis and is thought to decrease the disease risks associated with early menopause.
There are many forms of HRT, differing in the source of the hormones used (synthetic, natural, or conjugated equine), in whether or not a progestogen is included, and in how the hormones are delivered – orally, injected, across the skin, absorbed from the mouth, or transvaginally.
This array of therapies complicate how one interprets the available studies on the benefits and risks of HRT. It is difficult, for example, to generalise about the safety of physiological human hormone supplementation when the majority of large studies have used synthetic or conjugated equine oestrogens and/or synthetic progestins. The route of administration may also influence the risks of HRT, as dose forms that transfer oestrogens across the skin, mouth or vagina avoid oestrogenic overload effects on the liver (which may, for example, lead to an increased risk of abnormal blood clots).
The consensus medical opinion is that when delivered appropriately, HRT’s benefits for menopausal and post-menopausal women exceed its risks.
Recently there has been interest in so-called “bioidentical” HRT, using only the chemical forms of hormones normally found in the human body, as these forms should have fewer undesirable side effects compared with synthetic or conjugated forms.
Bioidentical HRT is delivered better and is more tolerable than many commercially-available HRT preparations. However it is important to maintain supply from a single supplier, since variations in product formulation between manufacturers or compounding practices may influence the dose of hormone received by the body.
Another recent development in HRT is in custom-made bioidentical HRT: the supplementation of the range of biological oestrogens and progestogens as needed, with continual blood level monitoring supervised by a doctor, to maintain a woman’s measured hormone levels within the “normal” (or pre-menopausal) range.
Custom-made bioidentical HRT usually consists of one or more normal physiological human hormones in a combination to suit your body. Some custom HRT combinations for women may also include the combination of an androgen, which may help with mood or libido.
It may be taken or applied in a range of of dose forms including capsules, troches, creams, gels and pessaries. Creams and gels are often dispensed in metered applicators to ensure accurate dosing.
Everyone’s hormones are unique. By working closely with your doctor, your HRT can be as optimised and individualised as it should be.
Please contact us for further information.
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Can a compounding pharmacy help with migraines and headaches? Absolutely.
At Border Compounding pharmacy, our pharmacists can combine a number of ingredients and turn them into a gel that can be applied to the first 2 molars on the top gum. You can see from the diagram above this corresponds to the maxillary nerve. By telling this nerve to stop with the pain, you can get it to tell all the other ones in the trigeminal nerve meeting point to stop with the pain too.
The human skin microbiome has been established as being one of the master controls of dermal health. Most people are aware of the presence of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ bacteria, but there are other types of organisms present on healthy skin. The biome consists of bacteria, viruses, yeasts and mites.
The main form of mites on the skin are Demodex mites. They reside in the pores of the skin devouring sebum and other dead skin material. There are numerous strains of Demodex mites which vary according to the location they are found. In healthy skin at normal levels, demodex mites appear to release various substances known as immune reactive lipases, which may protect against S.Aureus and S.Pyogenes. Generally, demodex mites are innocuous and inconspicuous - even when their population is excessive. However, in the presence of increased lipid or sebum production or in instances of dermal immunosuppression, demodex mites flourish and start to release inflammatory chemicals. This is believed to be the basis for the inflammation and secondary bacterial infections associated with rosacea and perioral dermatitis.
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